Amphetamines are all based on the naturally occurring chemical, ephedrine, found in the herb Ephreda vulgaris. Chinese people have used this plant for over 5000 years to treat asthma. In 1887, chemists made amphetamine, a synthetic substitute for ephedrine. They found that amphetamine affects the brain, increasing alertness and decreasing appetite. It increases the levels of two of the brain's chemicals, noradrenaline and dopamine.
Also Known as Biphetamine(brand name), Dexedrine(brand name); bennies, black beauties, crosses, hearts, LA turnaround, speed, truck drivers, uppers
How Administered injected, swallowed, smoked, snorted
Indications: Helps treat acne and prevent diaper rash.
Dosage: Change wet and soiled diapers promptly, cleanse the diaper area and allow to dry, use if needed.
Pregnancy: Category A
Side Effects: Unknown. Warning: Use externally only, avoid getting into eyes.
Pregnancy Risk Categories defined:
A: Studies in pregnant women failed to show a risk to the fetus in the first trimester - with no evidence of risk in the later trimesters.
B: Animals studies indicate no adverse effect to the fetus, but there are no adequate, clinical studies in pregnant women.
C: Animal studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus, but there are no adequate, clinical studies in humans. Despite potential risks, the drug may be useful in pregnant women.
D: There is evidence of risk to the human fetus, but the potential benefits of use in pregnant women may be acceptable, despite potential risks.
X: Studies in animals or humans show fetal abnormalities, or adverse reaction reports indicate evidence of fetal risk. Warning: the risks involved clearly outweigh any potential benefit from using the drug in pregnant women, regardless of trimester.
NR: Not rated (i.e., no information available at this time as to the potential risks or benefits).
Description: * There are two cruciate ligaments in the knee joint that connect the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone). They are located inside the knee joint, forming an "X" pattern. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) keeps the joints of the knee stable by preventing the tibia from sliding forwards under the femur. The ACL is the most commonly injured ligament of the knee joint.
Cause: * Most ACL injuries occur when playing sports such as football, soccer or basketball
1. Forceful twisting of knee 2. Sudden stop or change of direction during a sports activity 3. Forceful hyperextension of knee while landing from a jump 4. Direct impact to the lower leg
Symptoms: * Feeling a pop at the time of injury * Pain in the joint of the knee * Swelling of the knee within a few hours after the injury * Feeling of instability or a "giving" way of the knee How The Diagnosis Is made: * A history of the injury and a physical examination is of the highest priority. The physical exam includes several tests that check the stability of the knee joint. * An x-ray of the knee joint can rule out any other bone injuries * A MRI scan shows the torn ligament and other combined injuries within the knee joint * Arthroscopy
Treatment * Acute stage-rest until the swelling resolves itself. * Apply an ice pack and compress the knee joint with an elastic bandage to reduce the swelling.
1. As the swelling and pain subside, physical therapy should be started to regain the range of motion and to strengthen the muscles around the knee joint. 2. Knee brace 3. A complete tear may be treated with arthroscopic reconstruction
Breast augmentation plastic surgery is one of the most common procedures in women's cosmetic surgery.Women may choose to under go breast enlargement surgery for various reasons. These personal reasons may
center around breasts that are perceived to be under developed, or because of differences in the sizes of the breasts or from changes after pregnancy or breast feeding. In india breast augmentation can be had in 1500-2000$ U.S
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So what is the average Penis Size. Now are we talking the average penis of a fully erect penis or a non erect penis. Penis enlargement dot com we let you know all and more about the average penis size.
Average penis size - non erect penis the average penis size of a non erect penis is between 2.9 and 3.9 inches. This measurement is made from tip to base. If your penis falls below 2.9 inches you fall into the category of what we call a "micropenis" If you feel your penis is too small you could fall into this category.
Average Penis Size - Fully erect penis Penis Sizes can vary when erect. The average size is around 6.4 inches when erect. Larger men can pull off up to a 70 increase when fully erect. Its is quite common that men with a non-erect penis can will more then double their penis size when erect. Some very interesting results were found of some men reaching over 120% when erect.
Average Penis Size - Factors to consider -Length is one thing but what about width -if you are suffering from shrinkage measure your penis at an appropriate time (cold weather, beach) Average Penis size myths -The bigger you nose, feet, foot whatever the bigger your penis size. -You have a bigger penis if because of your nationality
What if you have a micropenis or micro penis - Many men suffer from what is called a micropenis. Basically if you fall below the average penis size you fall into the category of what they call a micropenis. Man with a micropenis are more than capable of producing children. A micro penis can be enlarged in many ways.
Itchy skin rashes are very common in the genital region, which generally includes the area below the belly button to the top of the legs: the buttocks the area around the anus, and the vulvar, penile, and scrotal areas.
Many of these conditions on the genitals are sexually transmitted and uncommon in children or in those who are not sexually active. Conditions that may be sexually transmitted (but can also be acquired by other means) include viral infections such as molluscum contagiosum, warts (caused by the human papillomavirus), and genital herpes; infestation by insects such as pubic lice and scabies; and fungal infections, such as that from jock itch (tinea cruris).
Non-contagious conditions that affect the genital region include psoriasis, intertrigo (breakdown and irritation of skin from moisture), allergic contact dermatitis, and irritant dermatitis, such as the condition diaper rash, which is common with infants.
Genital warts (condyloma acuminata) are caused by more than 30 types (strains) of human papillomavirus (HPV). The virus is spread by skin-to-skin contact during sexual activity and there does not need to be vaginal or anal penetration in order to become infected. Most people who become infected with HPV will not have symptoms and will clear the infection on their own. However, some of the virus types may cause cervical cancer.
Molluscum contagiosum is a common painless and usually harmless viral infection of the skin. Although it is painless and usually goes away after several months, some cases can last a few years. Molluscum can spread to surrounding skin by scratching or rubbing and can spread to others by skin-to-skin contact or handling contaminated objects such as towels, toys, and clothing. Poor hygiene and warm, moist climates encourage the spread of molluscum. Use of public or school swimming pools is associated with childhood infections.
Irritant Contact Dermatitis
Irritant contact dermatitis is an inflammatory rash caused by direct chemical injury to the skin. Unlike allergic contact dermatitis, which appears 48–72 hours after exposure to an allergen, the symptoms of irritant contact dermatitis can result within a few hours if the exposure is a strong irritant.
Patients typically present complaining of a burning or stinging early in the course of irritant contact dermatitis.
As the irritation becomes chronic and the skin becomes continually inflamed, itching can become a predominant symptom.
Intertrigo is irritation of touching skin surfaces in body fold regions (armpits, under the breasts, belly, buttocks, groin, and sometimes between fingers or toes). Intertrigo can be worsened by any conditions causing increased heat, wetness, and friction. Intertrigo may be complicated by superficial skin infection with yeast or bacteria.
Description * Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also called Lou Gehrig's disease, is a disorder that causes the loss of control of the voluntary muscles due to a degeneration of the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. It only affects the anterior horn cells (motor neurons of the brain and the spinal cord) and does not involve the sensory nerve cells.
Symptoms * Slowly progressive muscle weakness of the extremities, muscle stiffness and fatigue * Difficulty in swallowing, chewing, breathing and speaking due to muscle weakness * Weight loss due to muscle waste * Fasciculations (muscle twitching) * Muscle Cramps
Cause * The cause is unknown. About 5 to 10 % of all ALS cases are inherited, while others result from the mutation of specific gene. * ALS generally begins between the ages of 30 and 60.
How The Diagnosis Is made * A diagnosis is made by patient history and a neurological examination. Patients do not show physical signs of sensory dysfunction. All symptoms are related with a muscle weakness of each part of the body. An Electromyography is helpful in diagnosing the damage of motor neurons, while brain MRIs and EMGs help to rule out other diseases that can cause progressive motor weakness.
Treatment * There is no known cure for ALS * Rriluzole (RILUTEK), approved by the FDA, may reduce the mortality and prolong the survival of ALS patients. * Treatments are largely supportive, and are aimed at the control of symptoms and complications, such as muscle stiffness, swallowing difficulty and difficulty with breathing. * Physical therapy and use of special equipment (such as braces or a wheelchair) may enhance a feeling of independence, as well as insuring the safety of the patient.
Complications * Aspiration of food or fluid * Pneumonia * Respiratory failure
Prognosis * ALS is a progressive disease without remissions and relapses. Most people die within 3 to 5 years from the onset of symptoms. However, about 20 percent of ALS patients survive for 5 or more years.
Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that starts from cells of the breast. A malignant tumor is a group of cancer cells that may invade surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the body. The disease occurs almost entirely in women, but men can get it, too. The remainder ofthis document refers only to breast cancer in women.
Normal Breast Structure
In order to understand breast cancer, it is helpful to have some basic knowledge about the normal structure of the breasts.The female breast is made up mainly of lobules (milk-producing glands), ducts (tiny tubes that carry the milk from the lobules to the nipple), and stroma (fatty tissue and connective tissue surrounding the ducts and lobules, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels).Most breast cancers begin in the cells that line the ducts (ductal cancers); some begin in the cells that line the lobules (lobular cancers), and the rest in other tissues.