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Thursday, May 30, 2013
Blue Nevi

Blue Nevi







Blue moles



Abnormal
  • Blue Nevi are blue-black moles that are common in individuals of Asian descent.  If present for many years, they are almost always benign (not cancerous).
  • They are the result of a collection of the body's pigment-producing cells called melanocytes.  Any new blue-black lesion must be evaluated, because it may be a type of melanoma (cancer).
Blue Moles

Blue Moles







Blue nevi

  • Blue Nevi are blue-black moles that are common in individuals of Asian descent.  If present for many years, they are almost always benign (not cancerous).
  • They are the result of a collection of the body's pigment-producing cells called melanocytes.  Any new blue-black lesion must be evaluated, because it may be a type of melanoma (cancer).
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Blood in the Urine





Hematuria, silent or painless hematuria



Normal

Abnormal
  • Hematuria is often a sign of problems in the genitourinary tract (i.e., kidneys, bladder, urethra, prostate).  Blood in the Urine can be visible as red or Coca-cola colored (in macroscopic or gross bleeding), or invisible to the naked eye, evident only on Urinalysis under a microscope (i.e., microscopic Hematuria).
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Blood in the Sperm





Hematospermia or blood in the ejaculate

  • This is a symptom that the patient may notice as brownish or blood-tinged ejaculate.  In a majority of cases, an exact cause cannot be found, and usually the problem resolves on its own.
  • However, in young patients less than 40 years old, various sexually transmitted diseases or acute Prostatitis must be ruled out.
  • In older patients, the following conditions must also be considered and ruled out (or treated, as the case may be): chronic ProstatitisBenign Prostatic HyperplasiaProstate Cancer, prostatic calculi, genital Tuberculosis, and hypertension. 
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Blood Dyscrasia






Hematologic problems

  • Diseases of the blood-forming organs. In most cases, this involves diseases of the bone marrow, but it might also involve the spleen and/or the liver. 
  • The term "dyscrasia" originated in earlier medical "science" and referred to the "four humors."  It has come to mean simply "disease" or "pathological condition."
  • Thus, blood dyscrasia is a pathological condition of the blood, usually involving disorders of the cellular elements of the blood.
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Blood Clots in the Lungs






Pulmonary emboli or blockage of lung arteries

  • The arterial blood (oxygen-rich blood) supply to the lungs via the pulmonary artery or one of its branches can be blocked by matter such as a blood clot (most common), fat, air, tumor (abnormal growth) tissue, bone marrow, amniotic fluid (fluid in the womb), or foreign substances.  This is called a pulmonary embolus (plural emboli).
Wednesday, May 29, 2013
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Blood Clots in the Legs







Thrombophlebitis, deep vein thrombosis, or phlebothrombosis

  • This occurs when a blood clot obstructs the veins deep in the leg, impeding blood from properly returning to the heart.  Blood and fluid back up, causing swelling, redness, and pain in the leg below the clot.
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Blockage of the Tear Ducts





Dacryostenosis


  • Dacryostenosis, or stenosis of the tear duct, is a congenital blockage of the tear duct, occurring in approximately 5% of babies.  In these infants, the opening of the tear duct, a passage that drains tears from the eyes into the nose, fails to open before birth.  The blockage is inside the nose, at the end of the duct.  Because tears cannot escape, they flow back into the eye, where they collect, along with dead cells from the skin of the eyelids, and dirt and dust from the environment.  This mixture results in a mucoid discharge in the eyes.
  • Because infants do not make large amounts of tears during the first few weeks of life, the condition is often not often recognized immediately after birth.
Monday, May 27, 2013
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Blockage of Lung Arteries






Pulmonary emboli or blood clots in the lungs

  • The arterial blood (oxygen-rich blood) supply to the lungs via the pulmonary artery or one of its branches can be blocked by matter such as a blood clot (most common), fat, air, tumor (abnormal growth) tissue, bone marrow, amniotic fluid (fluid in the womb), or foreign substances. This is called a pulmonary embolus (plural emboli).
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Blockage of Central Retinal Vein






Sudden blindness or retinal vein occlusion; also see blockage of central retinal artery

  • Blockage of the retinal (membrane in the back of the eye) artery (carries oxygen-rich blood to retina) or retinal vein (carries oxygen-poor blood from retina) will lead to painless, Sudden Blindness in one eye in the case of an arterial (arteries) occlusion, and more gradual loss of central vision in a venous (veins) occlusion.
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Blockage of Central Retinal Artery







Retinal artery occlusion or sudden blindness; also see blockage of central retinal vein

  • Blockage of the retinal (membrane in the back of the eye) artery (carries oxygen-rich blood to retina) or retinal vein (carries oxygen-poor blood from retina) will lead to painless, Sudden Blindness in one eye in the case of an arterial (arteries) occlusion, and more gradual loss of central vision in a venous (veins) occlusion.
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Bloating






Distention of the abdomen

  • This is the common (non-medical) term for distention of the abdomen.  Many benign conditions can cause bloating, such as overeating or lactose intolerance.  Some very serious medical conditions can also cause this condition, like Small Bowel Obstruction,Colon Cancer, liver cancer, and ovarian cancer.  Any abdominal distention that does not rapidly go away in less than 24 hours, or is associated with pain, nausea/vomiting, or rectal bleeding/black tarry stool needs immediate medical evaluation.
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Blepharitis






  • This is a disease in which the edge of the eyelid becomes inflamed.  The cause may be a bacterial infection (such as staphylococcal bacteria), Seborrheic Dermatitis (seborrheic blepharitis is the most common form), or allergies.  Lice infection of the eyelid may also cause blepharitis.
  • It may involve the skin of the eyelids, eyelashes, or glands of the eye.  Ulcers (sores) may form because of secondary infection.
  • There are actually two forms -- anterior and posterior, which will be determined by an ophthalmologist.

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