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Monday, June 3, 2013
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Breast Cancer








Normal

Abnormal
  • Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death in women (lung cancer is most common cause of cancer death).  During a woman's lifetime, the risk of breast cancer is approximately 1 in 9.  The United States has a very high rate of breast cancer relative to many other countries.  Though many factors may play a role, a clear cause, such as diet, has not been found.
Breast Abscess

Breast Abscess








Normal

Abnormal
  • An Abscess is a collection of pus in various parts of the body.  Two types of breast Abscesses typically occur.  The first is related to nursing (breastfeeding).  In this case, redness, tenderness, and skin changes take place on the breast from the baby's feeding and sucking on the nipple.  If untreated an Abscess will form.  The second type is a subareolar Abscess  (in the pigmented area surrounding the nipple).  The second type is unrelated to nursing.
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Brain Tumor







Normal

Abnormal
  • Brain tumors are either primary (start in the brain itself) or from metastatic disease -- i.e., spread to the brain from a different area of the body.  Fifty percent of primary brain tumors are astrocytomas (made up of cells called astrocytes), while the remainder is comprised of more than ten other types.  Brain tumors may be benign or malignant (cancer).
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Brain Attack







Cerebrovascular accident, CVA, or stroke

  • A stroke occurs when an infarct (damage) to the brain occurs, either because there is not enough blood or oxygen (nonhemorrhagic stroke) going to the brain, or due to bleeding into the brain (hemorrhagic stroke).  A non-hemorrhagic stroke is more common than a hemorrhagic stroke.  Strokes cause symptoms and physical findings depending on the area injured in the brain.
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Brain Aneurysm





Cerebral Aneurysm



Normal

Abnormal

  • The brain has many arterial blood vessels that supply blood pumped by the heart.  When the wall of a blood vessel becomes weak and/or thin, it forms a bulge or a bubble.  This bulge or bubble is called an aneurysm.
  • An aneurysm may press on areas of the brain and cause various symptoms (below). Aneurysms may also rupture, causing bleeding in the brain.  This bleeding results in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (bleeding into the subarachnoid space of the brain).
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Bradycardia






Slow heart rate

  • The normal heart rate is between 60 and 100 beats per minute.  Any heart rate below 60 beats per minute is called bradycardia.  Bradycardia can be normal, especially in athletes (their heart is so well conditioned it beats more efficiently) or during sleep.  It can be abnormal when there is damage to the pace-setting mechanism (the sinus node) of the heart. 
  • The sinus node is located in the upper portion of the right atrium.  After the electrical impulse is generated in the node, it travels to the ventricles and the rest of the heart through the A-V node (an area between the atria and ventricles), thus any damage to these areas will slow the rate of this electrical impulse, which may lead to bradycardia or other arrhythmias. 
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Bowlegs






Genu varum, physiologic bowlegs

  • The lower extremities of newborns and infants commonly have mild to moderate bowing and internal rotation due to in-utero positioning.  The bowed appearance is actually a torsional combination from the external rotation of the hip and the internal tibial torsion.  With the onset of standing and independent walking, the bowing spontaneously corrects.
  • Overweight infants might have persistent bowing. 
  • The typical infant has 15 degrees of Genu Varum (bowleg).
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Bowen's Disease







 
Abnormal
  • This is a type of skin cancer (not melanoma) called squamous cell carcinoma in-situ, i.e., squamous cell cancer is completely localized in the epidermis of the skin.  It most commonly occurs in sun-damaged areas of the skin, though it can occur in any area of skin on the body (even in areas not damaged from the sun).
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Botulism






  • Botulism is a type of Food Poisoning caused by toxin produced by the bacterium, Clostridium botulinum.  This organism, found in soil and water throughout the world, finds its way into food, primarily meats and vegetables.  Here it produces spores that grow into adult bacteria in the absence of air-as in canned products. 
  • Clostridium botulinum thrives on low acidity, depleted oxygen, and temperatures between 40-120 degrees Fahrenheit.  Once such an environment is found, the organism multiplies and releases its toxin.  Boiling for 30 minutes kills the spores. 
  • Botulism toxins interfere with transmission of information from nerves to muscle, affecting the muscles involved with respiration, leading to muscle paralysis and difficulty breathing.  If the respiratory muscles remain paralyzed for very long, death may result.
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Bone Infection






OM or osteomyelitis

  • Human skin serves as the body's first defense against the outside world.  When there is a break in the skin, such as a cut or an open sore, bacteria and other organisms can enter the body and cause infections of the skin, muscles, and bones.  OM can also occur when an infection from another part of the body travels through the blood stream and invades the bones.  OM can occur suddenly (acute) or be present for a long time (chronic).
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Bone Cancer






  • The most common cause of bone cancer is metastatic spread, not primary bone cancer.  This occurs when other types of cancer, such as breast or Lung Cancer, spread to the bones. 
  • Primary bone cancer (i.e., cancer that begins in the bones themselves) is rare, but does occur.  Most, but not all primary bone cancers, tend to occur in younger individuals (i.e., 10 to 40 years old).  The tissue type (histology) of the bone cancer is the major factor in determining how aggressive the cancer is likely to be.

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