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Miscellaneous




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Thursday, December 19, 2013
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Cardiac Arrest





  • Cardiac arrest refers to a condition in which the heart stops pumping blood to the body. It occurs due to one of three main reasons, as will be explained.
  • The first is ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia. In this case, the heart shakes rapidly but does not pump blood (ventricular fibrillation), or it tries to pump so rapidly (pulseless ventricular tachycardia) it does not allow blood to flow in, or effectively flow out.
  • The second type is called pulseless electrical activity (also known as electromechanical dissociation). In this case there is normal electrical conduction in the heart, but the heart does not contract.
  • The third type is called asystole, in which there is no electrical activity or muscle activity of the heart.
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Carcinoma of the Biliary Tract







Normal

Abnormal
  • Usually found when a surgeon is looking for gallstone disease. It tends to grow slowly but silently, so it may have already invaded into the liver by the time it is found. Symptoms often do not occur until the disease is advanced.
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Carcinoid Tumor





  • Carcinoid tumors are fairly rare cancers that can occur most commonly in the intestine and lungs.
  • Carcinoid tumors are not very common. These cancers arise from cells in the body that produce certain hormones. Carcinoid tumors most often develop in the intestine or lungs. In some cases, the cancers cause symptoms such as bleeding, pain, and Intestinal Obstruction because of their size and location.
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Carcinoid Syndrome





  • Carcinoid syndrome is a group of symptoms that occur in patients who have Carcinoid Tumors.
  • Carcinoid Tumors are not very common. These cancers most often develop in intestine or lungs and arise from cells in the body that produce certain hormones. Initially, when the cancer is within the intestine, these substances are removed from circulation by the liver. However, once the cancer has spread here, the liver can no longer remove them. The hormones then travel throughout the body and cause the symptoms associated with carcinoid syndrome. These symptoms include flushing, Diarrhea, and low blood pressure. Medications are available that can treat some of the symptoms with varying degrees of success. However, treating the symptoms does not change the long-term outlook, which is more dependent on the size of the tumor, its location, and whether or not it has spread to the liver.
  • For more details regarding carcinoid syndrome, please see the section "Carcinoid Tumor."
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Carbon Monoxide Poisoning






  • Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless gas. It is caused by burning carbon-based materials, such as wood, kerosene, natural gas, and gasoline. Hemoglobin carries oxygen to the body. Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin, and makes it unable to carry oxygen where it is needed.
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Canker Sore





Aphthous ulcer or ulcerative stomatitis

  • These are small sores or painful swellings on the inside of the mouth and on the tongue that appear without apparent reason, and disappear by themselves usually within ten days, leaving no scar. They maybe caused by stress, spicy foods, or acid-alkaline imbalance.
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Candida Vaginitis





Also known as

Yeast infection


Description

1. One of the most common infections causing vaginal discharge is Candidiasis.
2. Candidiasis or 'yeast infection' is a fungus. The vast majority of cases are caused by Candida albicans; the Candida species normally resides in the vaginal flora of approximately 25% of women.
3. Many bacteria normally live in the vagina. Under normal circumstances, there is a balance among the different types of bacteria. If the balance is disrupted, an overgrowth of one of the organisms may occur. When the balance tips in favor of Candida, a vaginal yeast infection may occur. Antibiotics can kill off the good bacteria in the vagina, and antibiotics are a common cause of yeast infections. Also, anything that stresses the immune system, such as diabetes, may also cause a yeast infection.
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Candida Vaginitis





Yeast infection



Normal

Abnormal
  • Many bacteria and fungi inhabit the vagina. Under normal circumstances, there is a balance among them. If the balance is disrupted, an overgrowth of one of the organisms may occur. When the balance tips in favor of candida, a vaginal Yeast Infection may occur. Antibiotics can kill off the good bacteria in the vagina and are a common cause of Yeast Infections. Anything that stresses the immune system, such as diabetes, may also cause yeast infection.
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Cancer of the Prostate







Prostate cancer, PC, malignancy of the prostate

  • The Prostate is a gland in males that surrounds the neck of the bladder (where urine is stored) and the urethra (urine leaves the bladder and exits the penis via this canal). During sex, the prostate secrets a milky fluid (necessary to keep sperm alive) that mixes with sperm and makes semen. The prostate is also the source for testosterone (an important male sex hormone) metabolism.
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Cancer of the Pancreas





PC or pancreatic cancer



Normal

Abnormal
  • The pancreas is an elongated organ that lies transversely behind the stomach (it has a head and tail). A section of the pancreas called the exocrine pancreas secrets chemicals called enzymes into the duodenum of the stomach.
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Cancer of the Anus





Anal cancer



Normal

Abnormal
  • This is a relatively rare form of cancer. It has the cell type squamous cell carcinoma. It is an aggressive cancer that rapidly spreads from the anus into the sphincter (muscle that controls bowel movements) and up into the rectum.
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Cancer Comparison






  • Cancer is the 2nd leading cause of death in the United States. Approximately 500,000 deaths occur and 1.2 million new cases of cancer occur each year in the United States. Cancer is a serious condition in which the cells of the body become altered and grow without control. The cause of most cancer is unknown, though alterations in DNA have been linked to the formation of cancer. In addition, chronic irritation or toxin exposure (e.g. cigarettes) has been correlated to the occurrence of cancer. Prostate Cancer is the most common cancer in men, but Lung Cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in men. Breast Cancer is the most common cancer in women, but also as in men, it is the leading cause of death from cancer in women.
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Caffeine Excess





  • Caffeine is probably the most widely consumed stimulant in the world.  It is commonly found in coffee, tea, many sodas, and in small amounts in chocolate.  In addition, it is often added to over-the-counter and prescription medications for headaches and pain (i.e., Excedrin, Anacin, and Fiorinal).
  • At lower doses, caffeine seems to help alertness and performance.  At higher doses, it causes restlessness, agitation, and insomnia.  Withdrawal (suddenly discontinuing) from caffeine can cause headaches, lethargy, irritability, and nausea.
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CVA





Cerebrovascular accident, stroke, or brain attack

  • Stroke occurs when an infarct (damage) to the brain occurs, either because there is not enough blood or oxygen (nonhemorrhagic Stroke) going to the brain, or due to bleeding into the brain (hemorrhagic Stroke). A Non-hemorrhagic Stroke is more common than a hemorrhagic StrokeStrokes cause symptoms and physical findings depending on the area injured in the injured brain.
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CREST Syndrome





Scleroderma or progressive systemic sclerosis

  • Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease (body's immune systems mistakenly attacks itself) characterized by diffuse thickening of the skin and internal organs. The cause remains unknown.Scleroderma may be localized, only affecting the skin. The disease can also be systemic, affecting the internal organs.

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