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Showing posts with label Infertility Clinic. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Infertility Clinic. Show all posts
Saturday, October 4, 2008
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Constipation and Hemorrhoids


Description

Women previously unaffected by constipation before childbirth can suffer from constipation after childbirth and develop hemorrhoids. In many cases, treating constipation automatically relieves and treats hemorrhoids.



Constipation/Causes

# A decline in intestinal activity, due to hormones from the placenta, continues for a few days after delivery.
# Pain from the perineotomy region prevents pushing during bowel movements.
# Many mothers have difficulty going to the bathroom because of enemas they received before giving birth.


Constipation/Treatment

# Constipation medicine is routinely used after childbirth. If there are no bowel movements after 3 to 4 days and there is a heavy feeling, a suppository or enema may help.
# Enemas and suppositories can become habitual. Try to avoid using enemas and suppositories, and, instead, eat food that does not cause constipation.


Hemorrhoids/Causes

# Severe hemorrhoids are very painful. They are caused by:
# An enlarged uterus applies pressure to the veins. Veins in the anus become congested from pushing while constipated.
# Women who did not experience hemorrhoids during pregnancy can get hemorrhoids as a result of pushing during delivery.



Hemorrhoids/Treatment

# Most hemorrhoids heal with time and sitz baths. It is important not to become constipated; if pain is severe, painkillers, suppositories, and spray local anesthetics should be used.
# Severe pain should subside after 2-3 days, but if pain is severe a local anesthesia can be applied to remove coagulated blood and ease symptoms.
# If severe symptoms and discomfort continue after puerperium (i.e., the period from the end of the third stage of labor until the involution of the uterus has occurred-may be three to six weeks) consult a surgeon to decide on a surgical solution.



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First Visit to the Hospital



Procedure

Write down specific questions before visiting the hospital to save time and get the best results from fertility treatment.



What couples should remember:

# Use of birth control after marriage
# How long they have tried to get pregnant
# If they visited another hospital for counseling and testing
# If they have received semen, hormone, after sex, ovulation, and fallopian tube tests
# If either partner has received any infertility treatments (egg facilitation medicine, or shots, artificial insemination, test tube, etc.)
# Frequency of intercourse and length of intercourse
# Any problems with sex life or pain during intercourse
# If either partner is taking any medication
# Prior surgeries or hospitalizations


What women should remember:

# First period
# Monthly cycle (cycle, duration, amount, cramps)
# Prior pregnancies or labor
# Prior abortions, miscarriages, and effect, if any, on monthly cycle


What men should remember:

# High fevers (measles, epidemic parotitis)
# Treatments for urinary disease (including STDs)
# Unusual amount of drinking, smoking, and level of stress
# Work environment (high heat, radiation, chemicals)


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Definition of Infertility



Conception

# Pregnancy occurs when a man's sperm and a woman's egg fertilize and implant in the uterus.
# Necessary conditions o Men must produce healthy sperm. o Women's ovaries must produce mature eggs. o Sperm must migrate toward the womb and fertilize the egg in the fallopian tube. o The fertilized egg must move from the fallopian tubes to the uterine lining (membrane) and implant in the uterine wall.

Pregnancy will not occur unless all of these conditions are met.



# Definition of infertility

# Infertility is the condition in which a healthy couple of childbearing age cannot conceive for more than a year, despite having a normal sex life and not using any contraceptives. Usually 70-80% of couples that do not use any birth control conceive within a year and 80-90% conceive within 2 years.


Primary factors affecting fertility

# Woman's age: If the woman is 25 years old and the husband is of similar age, then there is a 50% chance that the couple will conceive within 5 months. After age 35, the ability to become pregnant decreases noticeably; after menopause the ability to conceive disappears completely.
# Man's age: Pregnancy rates for men are best when he is 25 years old, and decrease considerably after age 45. However, unlike women, men still have the ability to fertilize in senescence.

Infertility Explained: A Definition


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Causes of Infertility



Male sterility

The cause of male sterility can be summed up as the inability to send fertile sperm through the woman's reproductive organs. Some reasons are:

* An illness prevents the creation of sperm * Obstruction in the transportation of the sperm and other abilities * Difficulty with ejaculation and maintaining an erection, making it hard to ejaculate in the vagina * In the past it was thought that the woman was responsible for all causes of infertility, but that is not the case. * Statistics show that 40% of sterility cases are male-related, 40% are female-related, and 20% are attributable to the man and woman: Both sexes share equal responsibility in the matter.



Female sterility

The entire pregnancy happens in the woman's body, a very complex environment comprised of many delicate relationships. Therefore, many small problems or mishaps can lead to infertility. Some of the reasons are:
* Hormonal imbalances disrupt ovulation * Cervical defects * Fallopian tube defects * Difficulty with the implantation of the fertilized egg


The factor between couples.

* When there is nothing wrong with the husband's sperm and the wife's egg, and pregnancy does not happen, infertility is generally recognized as being caused by the immune system. * One theory is that a substance from the sperm or semen becomes an antigen. The woman's body makes an antibody to combat the antigen when the sperm enters the egg, when a fertilized egg is about to be implanted on the uterine wall, or when the sperm enters the cervical mucus, thereby preventing pregnancy from occurring.


Diverse causes

* The body requires many intricate steps to achieve a normal pregnancy. Small disruptions in these steps prevent pregnancy. * It is hard to pinpoint the exact cause of infertility. Rarely is there one cause for infertility, and both the man and the woman could provide causes for sterility.

Female Infertility


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Surgically Collected Sperm



Description

Sperm is collected surgically when a man's semen is weak and lacks adequate numbers of sperm to fertilize an egg.

TESE: Testicular Sperm Extraction

# This method is used when the testicles make inadequate sperm and sperm cannot be collected from the epididymis.
# A very small piece of testicular tissue is removed and living sperm in that tissue is used to attempt external fertilization.



# MESA: Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration

# Microsurgery is performed directly on the epididymal to collect sperm and attempt external fertilization.
# The husband must be hospitalized and anesthetics are needed, but collecting a sufficient amount of active sperm and freezing additional sperm is one advantage of this method.
# This method is used when surgery for aspermatism has failed or is impossible.


PESA: Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration

# Compared to MESA, this is method is more convenient.
# Sperm is collected directly with a syringe through the skin of the scrotum.
# This procedure is accomplished under local anesthesia; the testicles are not exposed, thereby reducing the incidence of fibrosis after surgery.



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Sterility and Life



Infertile couples' feelings

Married couples expect that they and their children will be parents and assume fertility. Hence, when infertility is a reality, infertility itself causes stress. Heavy psychological burdens are caused by diagnostic tests to examine the cause of sterility, anxiety from unsure diagnosis and treatment, and the strain that infertility places on familial relationships.



How infertile couples generally feel

# Couples are easily hurt by what others say and do, because they are in denial of their infertility.
# They tend to become isolated because they are reluctant to converse with others.
# Guilt, frustration, alienation, resentment, and sadness are some ways couples psychologically react in their relationships with spouse, family, and surrounding people.
# A couple may experience emotional isolation from family members and friends with children.
# The cost of treatment, examinations, uncertainty, and the desire for children cause many worries.


Stresses of an infertile woman

# Financial burden: Examinations and treatments for infertility are expensive and not covered by most insurance plans.
# Out of feelings of guilt, the couple's relationship may become strained.
# Sex becomes an obligatory act to become pregnant.
# Anxiety and nervousness during treatment; frequent blood tests, shots, and vaginal ultrasounds can cause discomfort and pain.
# Expectations, depression, and fear of failure while waiting to conceive after treatment
# Frustration, disappointment, and guilt from unsuccessful treatment
# Fear of divorce due to infertility.


The couple's spirit

# If either the husband or wife is the cause of infertility, it is important that they support and protect each other.
# Love and emotional support make it easier to undergo treatment and could have a positive effect on outcome.


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Preimplantion Genetic Diagnosis



Also known as

PGD


Procedure

This test screens for abnormal genes and numerical or structural problems with the chromosomes, using molecular biological techniques and microsurgical techniques to determine if there are any genetic abnormalities with the zygote about to be transferred.



Administration

* After investigating the parents' genetic diseases, a probe that can analyze genes and chromosomes is prepared. * An egg is collected from the woman via the same technique as the test-tube procedure. * After collecting the husband's sperm and fertilizing it externally, the zygote is cultivated for 2 or 3 days until cells begin to split. * The cells making up each zygote are separated using a microinstrument. * The separated cells are checked for genetic abnormalities by using genetic analyzing techniques such as polymerization chain reaction and FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization). * Only selected normal zygotes are transferred to the woman's uterus.

IVF & Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)

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Male Infertility


Description

Fifteen to 20% of couples report infertility or no pregnancy after having unprotected sexual intercourse for several months. Since nearly 50% of infertility cases are attributable to the male partner, the evaluation and treatment of the male is extremely important. Many of the causes of male infertility are treatable and will be identified after a careful history and physical examination.



Causes

1. Varicocele, a cystic swelling around the veins leading to the testes, occurs in approximately 40% of men undergoing an infertility examination. 2. Disorders of the testes 3. Chromosomal or gene abnormalities 4. Congenital abnormalities of the male reproductive system, e.g., blockage of the tubes that carry the sperm 5. Hormone deficiency 6. Infections of the urethra, prostrate, and epididymis (usually treatable) 7. History of mumps and inflammation in both testes (orchitis) 8. Injuries to the male reproductive system, e.g., torsion (twisting) of a testis 9. Surgery to the male reproductive system, e.g., vasectomy reversal 10. Radiation injury 11. Toxins, e.g., alcohol, tobacco, insecticides, metals, drugs 12. Medications 13. Immune disorders, e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes 14. Chronic diseases, e.g., kidney failure, liver diseases, sickle cell disease


Symptoms

1. None 2. Pain in the case of torsion or infection 3. Discharge from the urethra 4. Infertility is often first indication of a problem.


Diagnosis

1. History 2. Physical examination 3. Semen analysis: the number, condition of the sperm, motility, and appearance 4. Hormonal analysis, specifically, the sex hormones such as testosterone 5. Blood and urinalysis 6. Ultrasound 7. A needle biopsy of testicles is sometimes necessary.



Treatment

Dependent on the cause may involve one or more of the following:
1. Antibiotics to treat infection 2. Surgery to correct defect, e.g., varicocele 3. Hormone replacement 4. Artificial insemination after concentrating the sperm 5. Isolation of the male's genome

Advances in the treatment of male infertility are occurring rapidly, so ask your urologist about the latest treatments.

Male Infertility Treatment - Georgia Reproductive Specialist


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Issues Regarding Reproductive Aid



Medical, Ethical, and Legal Issues raised

Undoubtedly, reproductive aid is beneficial and brings joy to infertile parents who otherwise would be unable to have children. However, third-party artificial insemination, the donation of sperm and eggs, and surrogacy all raise medical, ethical, and legal issues.



Ethical issues

# Eugenically healthier and intellectual higher level of offspring when artificially inseminated
# Challenges concepts of traditional marriage and lineage.
# Artificial inseminations can cause confusion regarding familial lineages.
# Traditional values and ideas regarding family are challenged by unmarried women having children via artificial methods.
# Surrogacy could become an occupation if it were universal.
# It can promote conflict within a family and one's sense of inferiority.
# Artificial insemination and external fertilization may have been agreed upon but the thought that "this isn't my child" could later haunt one of the spouses.
# This conflict could affect the child's emotional well-being.
# Failure to fully investigate a donor's familial history of hereditary diseases and genetic make-up could cause unexpected medical problems for the children.
# Danger of deformity related to the fertilization process and sperm and egg preservation process cannot be excluded completely; disposal of surplus zygotes can also be a sociological issue.
# The remaining zygotes could possibly be used in research and experiments.


Legal issues relating to a traditional marriage

# Artificial insemination and external fertilization challenge society's fundamental traditions, morals, and legal ideas regarding childbirth.
# Artificial insemination and external fertilization with a non-spouse are medical acts, but some may view these as acts of adultery although intercourse has not occurred.
# In a society where family laws are based on blood relation, legitimacy issues may arise.
# Because it is impossible for children conceived via a donor to investigate their parents' lineage, traditional ideas regarding inheritance are reconsidered.
# In conclusion, it is very important to give written consent to agreements, permissions, parental responsibilities for raising the child (ren), and other concerns before pursuing artificial insemination or external fertilization.


Duties of medical personnel

# When infertile couples use reproductive aid, especially if the choice is artificial insemination and another person's sperm or egg is involved, medical personnel must counsel the couple regarding hereditary diseases, possible deformities, psychological conflicts, traditional marriage and childbirth, and the parent-child relationship/family system before administration, so as to prevent medical, ethical, and legal aftereffects.
# After explaining the administration method and process to the infertile couple, the couple must give written consent.
# Legal parental relationships are established for the husband in cases of artificial insemination and for the woman in cases of egg donation. Written consent must be granted after the legal responsibilities and duties concerning the child are explained and agreed upon.
# Surrogate mothers have no legal parental relationships with the children and are not required to pay child support. At the time of birth, written consent must transfer parental rights and responsibilities for raising the child (ren) to the infertile couple.
# Egg and sperm donors should wholly entrust the doctor with the use of the donations and the selection of recipients. The donors must make a written pledge stating that they will never make any effort to reveal their identity to the children.
# If the donor has a spouse, the spouse must give written consent to the donation and agree to not attempt to discover who received the donation.
# When choosing a donor, the doctor has a duty to choose a healthy person without hereditary diseases or contagious diseases, but the doctor should not reveal the donor's identity to the recipient.


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Special Treatment 2: Assisted Hatching



Description

Assisted hatching is used when the fertilized egg is wrapped in a membrane (zona pellucida) that is abnormally thick, so much so that the zygote is unable to break the membrane and implant in the uterine wall.



Indications

# The zona pellucida is abnormally thick
# Age (38 or older)
# Have attempted at least 3 times to have a baby using the test-tube method with healthy zygotes and have not conceived
# When the egg or the zygote is cultivated externally, the zona pellucida becomes thicker and harder. If this phenomenon is extreme, the zygote will not be able to hatch for implantation.
# Before the zygote is transferred into the uterus, a microsurgical instrument is used to break the zona pellucida and make hatching and implantation easier.
# Holes can be made with enzymes or acid, or a needle can tear the zona pellucida.


Freeze-preservation

Freeze-preservation: Freezing and preserving the sperm, egg, and zygote, and melting and using them as needed. Preservation Time: Generally 5 years.


Embryo Freezing:

# During the test-tube baby procedure, many egg cells can be collected from induced ovulation, resulting in many zygotes; however, to avoid a multiple pregnancy, the number of embryos transferred is generally limited to 4-5.
# Remaining zygotes are frozen. They are melted and transferred according to the patient's ovulation period, if pregnancy fails during the first transfer period.


Vitrifition Oocyte Freezing:

# The vitrifition method involves soaking the egg in ethyleneglycol for 20 seconds,
# freezing the egg cells (oocytes) very quickly, and preserving them in a jelly state at -196 degrees Celsius.
# As a result, chromosome damage and cytolysis, which can happen during the freezing procedure, are reduced dramatically, and the survival rate and fertilization rate is high, an average of 80-90%.
# Healthy eggs can be freeze-preserved, stored in an egg bank, and melted at a later date for use; patients at risk of premature menopause, career women who want a postpone pregnancy, and cancer patients with dysfunctional ovaries can preserve their eggs and become pregnant when they choose.


IVM-IVF: In Vitro Maturation-In Vitro Fertilization

Premature eggs can be frozen and used after they mature; or the eggs can be fertilized, freeze-preserved, and then used when needed. This method does not require ovulation injections. Premature eggs are collected, externally matured, fertilized, and then the embryos are transferred.


Indications

# Only premature eggs have been collected during the test-tube baby procedure, or eggs are not produced due to early menopause.
# Woman is about to receive radiotherapy or chemotherapy and wishes to harvest her eggs for later use.
# When the test-tube procedure is administered to a polycystic ovary diseased patient with negligible results.
# Sperm can be frozen for later use if it is not possible to collect sperm for artificial insemination or test-tube baby administration. Generally, semen is collected and frozen before cancer treatments or other treatments are initiated that would cause genetic variations in the sperm.



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Special Treatment 1: Assisted Hatching



Procedure

Assisted hatching is used when the fertilized egg is wrapped in a membrane (zona pellucida) that is abnormally thick, so much so that the zygote is unable to break the membrane and implant in the uterine wall.



Indications

# The zona pellucida is abnormally thick.
# Age (38 or older)
# Have attempted at least 3 times to have a baby using the test-tube method with healthy zygotes and have not conceived
# When the egg or the zygote is cultivated externally, the zona pellucida becomes thicker and harder. If this phenomenon is extreme, the zygote will not be able to hatch for implantation.
# Before the zygote is transferred into the uterus, a microsurgical instrument is used to break the zona pellucida and make hatching and implantation easier.
# Holes can be made with enzymes or acid, or a needle can tear the zona pellucida.

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PGD (preimplantion genetic diagnosis)



Also known as

Preimplantion genetic diagnosis

Procedure

This test screens for abnormal genes and numerical or structural problems with the chromosomes, using molecular biological techniques and microsurgical techniques to determine if there are any genetic abnormalities with the zygote about to be transferred.



Administration

# After investigating the parents' genetic diseases, a probe that can analyze genes and chromosomes is prepared.
# An egg is collected from the woman via the same technique as the test-tube procedure.
# After collecting the husband's sperm and fertilizing it externally, the zygote is cultivated for 2 or 3 days until cells begin to split.
# The cells making up each zygote are separated using a microinstrument.
# The separated cells are checked for genetic abnormalities by using genetic analyzing techniques such as polymerization chain reaction and FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization).
# Only selected normal zygotes are transferred to the woman's uterus.

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) at GIVF


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Infertility Test First-timers


Procedure

# Choose a hospital that specializes in infertility.
# A test conducted by a regular gynecologist will not reveal any reasons for the infertility or provide any further details. Seek a fertility specialist.
# Because testing for infertility takes time, patience is required.
# All tests and treatments are done in accordance with the woman's monthly menstrual cycle and cannot be rushed.
# Receive an infertility test as soon as possible.
# Ability to become pregnant decreases with age.
# For effective treatment, start measuring basal body temperature 2-3 months before visiting the hospital.
# Measuring basal body temperature is the most basic of infertility tests. It can be done without medical supervision and provides important information in analyzing and rectifying potential causes.
# How to measure basal body temperature:
# Use only a thermometer designed especially for measuring basal body temperature.
# After waking in the morning, measure oral temperature, without moving, for 3 minutes.
# Measure daily and record all significant matters (menstruation, sex, medication, etc.).
# Basal body temperature can estimate the date of ovulation and whether or not there an egg was produced.



# General concerns

# Receive infertility tests together.
# It works better when a couple cooperates and concentrates their efforts.
# Infertility tests are uncomfortable but not painful.
# It is most important to be relaxed and comfortable before tests.
# Check cost of treatment when visiting the hospital.
# Treatment takes time and money.
# Lastly, it is important to totally trust the doctor and follow his/her instructions thoroughly.


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Daily Life of Infertile Couples


Staying Healthy

Maintain a good nutritional diet.

* Vitamin A, B, E, and essential amino acids: good for virility and sperm ability * Vitamin C: especially important for the production of sperm * Vitamin A: eel; raw liver of cow or pig; egg yolk; sea squirts; spinach; leeks; and seaweeds * Vitamin B: eel; raw liver of cow or pig; meat; quail eggs; bacon; soybeans; and shiitakes * Vitamin C: grain, greenish-yellow vegetables; ginseng; soybeans and other beans; peanuts; sesame oil. * Essential amino acids: soybeans contain large quantities * Abstain from animal fat (e.g., bacon) and sweets. * Avoid obesity by exercising regularly * Women: losing too much weight and malnourishment can cause anovular menstruation. * The panniculus adiposus (layer of subcutaneous fat) absorbs critical female hormones. Hence, if there is too much of it then the hormones cannot function normally. * Men: Severe obesity can reduce sperm count. * Exercise to prevent congestion of the pelvis. (Move waist front to back and side to side.) * Abstain from drinking, smoking, and using drugs. * Reduce stress.



Encourage blood circulation

* Women should prevent congestion of the pelvis (i.e., venous blood is interrupted, causing blood to swamp the organs and tissue of the pelvis). * Avoid tight jeans and wear underwear composed of material with good air-permeability. * Dirty underwear should be changed to prevent the propagation of various germs. * Women must be attentive to air conditioning and heating settings. * Too much air conditioning interferes with blood circulation. * The entire body should be heated as evenly as possible. Partial heating interrupts blood circulation. * Bathing daily can help blood circulation, especially before intercourse. This quickens blood circulation and makes sex more enjoyable.


Conversation is important

* Trying to have a baby can be stressful. * Relax and talk honestly about expectations and each other's needs.


Experience love through sex

* Do not feel constraint and anxiety from the thought that sex is necessary for fertilization. * Do not use lubrication before or during intercourse or douche after intercourse. These chemicals affect sperm and cervical mucous. * Even if there is a need to void after intercourse, do not get up right away. Lie in bed or raise the buttocks slightly to help sperm reach the cervix.


Sexual relations when pregnancy is desired



* A good position to get pregnant is a position that allows semen to stay inside the vagina. * The missionary position (i.e., the man lying on top of the woman's stomach) is the most common. It is useful to place a cushion under the woman's back to raise her pelvis. * After ejaculation, the woman should maintain her position for 10 minutes to keep the semen inside her. * Have intercourse when chances are best for conceiving. o Chart ovulation using a basal thermometer. o The lifespan of sperm is 72 hours and for eggs it is 24 hours. Try to have intercourse the day before or on the day of ovulation. * There is no relationship between pregnancy and long abstinence or frequent sex. * After a normal ejaculation, it takes 2-3 days for the sperm count to return to normal, and 4-5 days if sperm generation is slow. * Intercourse must take place in a natural and nice atmosphere. * The uterus contracts during orgasm, drawing in sperm from the inside of the vagina. * The burden of trying to become pregnant and one-sided demands for sex interfere efforts to become pregnant.


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Basic Infertility Tests



Basic Infertility Tests

Procedure

# The best time to visit the hospital for infertility tests is 1-2 weeks after menstruation.
# On the day of the test, wear clothing that is easy to remove and avoid heavy make-up.
# The doctor will first check overall health, perform an internal examination, and ask the woman to fill out a written questionnaire
# Questions about pregnancy ability and menstrual cycle are included in the questionnaire.
# Overall physical condition, distribution of body fat and body hair, and breast development are checked.
# The internal examination will check for vaginitis (colpitis), uterocervical inflammation, and pelvic inflammation.



# Basic health tests

Types of tests: Blood pressure, weight, standard blood test, urine test, STD test, liver function, kidney function test, electrocardiogram, and chest x-ray
# Other tests may be added depending on the presence of disease and patient's overall condition.
# Diagnostic tests for tuberculosis, diabetes, and low body weight-Infertility is sometimes due to poor health.
# Hormone test: A blood test checks hormone secretion level and balance 2-4 days into menstruation.
# Vaginal ultrasound: Detects deformation of the fallopian tubes and assesses the condition of the ovaries and uterus.
# Fallopian tube blockage and uterus build test
# The condition of the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes are tested between 2 days after the menstruation cycle is completely finished and 3 to 4 days before ovulation.
# Ovarian ultrasound: Checks the growth and number of egg cells and whether ovulation takes place. Performed 11-12 days after the menstrual cycle begins and continues until ovulation is complete.
# Uterine mucus test: Checks the condition of the mucus at the mouth of the uterus immediately before ovulation or during ovulation.
# Endometrium test: Performed 10-12 days after ovulation, it evaluates the condition of the endometrium.
# After intercourse test: Performed 1 to 2 days before ovulation is expected, it tests whether the husband's sperm has entered the uterus. A sample of the wife's mucus must be taken within 8 hours of intercourse.
# Semen test: Taken at the same time as the wife's infertility tests.
# For further details, contact a hospital obstetrics and gynecology department that specializes in fertility issues.

Fertility Testing in Virginia


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Artificial Insemination 1

Injection location:

# Injections are made with a celoscope, laparoscope, or peritoneoscope under general anesthesia.
# Two to three collected eggs are mixed with sperm and injected into one or both fallopian tubes.



# Fertilization location:

# Fertilization takes place in the fallopian tubes, where it would naturally occur.


Applicable Subjects:

# One of the woman's fallopian tubes is blocked.
# The fallopian tubes are open but ovulation is disrupted.
# The woman's egg does not implant well due to an adhesion.
# The man's sperm has trouble reaching the fallopian tubes because of male sterility or endocervical mucous.


Advantages:

# Compared with external fertilization or zygote intrafallopian transfer, this method is more natural because fertilization occurs in the fallopian tubes. Disadvantages:
# Because fertilization is not confirmed at this point, the rate of pregnancy may be low.



ZIFT:Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer

# Same administration techniques as GIFT apply, and this procedure is appropriate for the same subjects who are eligible to undergo GIFT.
# Differs from GIFT, in that after fertilizing the egg with sperm externally, only the confirmed zygotes (fertilized eggs) are transferred to the fallopian tubes.
# Success rates are high when compared to results for test tube babies and GIFT.


GIFT: Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer

Eggs and sperm are collected through such means as external fertilization.


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Adoption



The meaning of adoption

# Adoption occurs when children, whose parents lack the ability to raise them or the desire to raise them, are provided with a permanent replacement family. Adopted children have the same benefits and rights as birth children.
# Adoption is a legal and social process that establishes the relationship between parent and child.



# Reasons why adoption is needed

# A child must be raised in a home.
# Orphanages and social welfare cannot replace a family. No matter how well they are run, they are second best.
# All children need a family and should be raised in a family, so they can grow up physically, mentally, and spiritually sound.
# A family is absolutely needed for a child. A family that can feed their child when hungry, be there during illnesses, provide a mother's breast and a father's back where the baby can cry and wipe his tears when things are difficult, tolerate and accept their child despite unreasonable demands and shortcomings, receive smiles and be joyous when the baby is cute-all this needed for the baby to grow normally.
# A family can provide an environment for learning and nurture learning.
# A family provides a training ground for character and individuality, so children can adapt and contribute to society.
# Some people believe that adoption increases the couple's chances for pregnancy, but this is not true.


Prejudices

# Most people in this society have prejudices toward adoption. But these narrow-minded thoughts are keeping innocent children from receiving the love and attention they crave, while robbing parents of the opportunity to grow together and give love.
# Our society sees adopted children as problem children. But adopted children go through the same natural growth processes as other children.
# A child born to a family can be a failure in society also. Nobody can predict the success or failure of adopted and non-adopted children.


Infertile couples

# Adoption is an option if pregnancy is not possible, or if pregnancy has not occurred, despite receiving various methods of treatment. It is not that uncommon for parents with children to adopt another.
# It is better to consider adoption on your own, rather than by the doctor's urging. Adopt when you fell ready and comfortable.
# The doctor should make clear your negligible chance of becoming pregnant and birthing your own child, even though there have been cases where pregnancy occurred while raising an adopted child. This is not scientifically proven.
# When adopting, the couple's mental health, financial health, and physical condition must be considered.
# There are many hardships involved with raising children. Before deciding on adoption or artificial insemination, consider your mental attitude and reasons for adopting, and consult people with child-raising experience.

Vietnam Adoption Video


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