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Showing posts with label Obesity Clinic. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Obesity Clinic. Show all posts
Thursday, October 2, 2008
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Ways to Lose Weight

Do not follow fad diets.
Most fad diets, like the banana diet and green tea diet, aren't very effective. While there may be a little change in body weight, it's nature's rule to maintain homeostasis in our body, so lost weight will be gained back, and actually, more weight might be gained than lost. Fad diets have a tendency to exhaust muscles essential to the body, make metabolic conditions unstable, and make people lethargic.

Avoid fad exercises and equipment
There are many people who think that exercise must be done in a gym or with purchased equipment, but there are many ways to exercise. Just remember that movement is necessary to lose weight. And remember that the best exercises are walking, jogging, hiking, cycling, and weight training.

Eat early
According to one study, simply controlling meals by eating a healthy breakfast, eating lunch, and then eating a light dinner can reduce body weight. If possible, eat dinner at least 4 hours before sleeping.

Create a situation to walk or run 5 km, 10 km (3-6 miles)
For example, the way to and from work or the way to school can be used. Or join and participate in hiking, in-line skating, or marathon clubs. Going to and from work happens at least 5 times a week, and using this time to walk or run would be a natural and regular way to exercise effectively. As a matter of fact, people who have tried this say that they lost weight easily.

Find an exercise you enjoy
Many people like walking outdoors. If the scenery isn't so beautiful, try walking with some music, or a friend, and try to enjoy walking itself. You'll be able to think of other ways to enjoy walking.

Do aerobic exercises (walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, aerobics, etc.) for 30-60 minutes in the morning
Aerobic exercise increases the secretion of a hormone that burns fat. And, because it reduces the hormone that stores fat, raises basal metabolic rate, and consumes calories, it is very effective. The human body is designed to move every day. If there is little movement throughout the day, the body will try to store as much fat as it can. But if you exercise, the body will try to get rid of fat. First, start by deciding on a time to exercise every day.

Do weight training 3 times a week.
Muscle raises basal metabolic rate and burns more calories. With a higher basal metabolic rate, more calories can be burned while sleeping. A tight body makes a person look younger and increases energy.

Restrain from drinking.
Drinking lowers the basal metabolic rate and increases appetite. And above all, it's high in calories.

Drink 1.8 L of water daily.
Our bodies need a lot of water to maintain its functions. Because water helps a person feel satiated, people trying to lose weight should carry a water bottle and drink often.

Do weight training 3 times a week.
Muscle raises basal metabolic rate and burns more calories. With a higher basal metabolic rate, more calories can be burned while sleeping. A tight body makes a person look younger and increases energy.

Don't weigh yourself everyday!
Body weight can change in a day. But this fluctuation doesn't reflect the loss or gain of fat. Body weight should be measured once a week.

If possible, exercise in the morning.
90% of people who exercise continuously exercise in the morning. Exercising in the morning boosts energy levels for the day. And many people say that exercising in the morning reduces their appetite during the day.

Do 15-30 minutes of aerobic exercise in the evening.
Doing aerobic exercises before or after dinner is even more effective. Choose exercises that are fun, safe, and not tedious. Pick different types of exercises like walking in the morning and cycling at night.

10 Ways to Lose Weight!

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Types of Obesity

Type-1 and Type-2 Obesity
Type-1 obesity is not caused by a disease and, in most cases, it is caused by excessive eating habits and lack of exercise. Type-2 obesity accounts for less than 1% of obesity cases and is caused by a disease; abnormal weight gains occur with type-2 obesity even when little is eaten.

Cushing syndrome, hypothyroidism, polycystic ovarian disease, and insulinoma, are some internal secretion diseases that cause type-2 obesity. Cushing syndrome is characterized by thinning arms and legs and abdominal obesity, whereby fat gathers around the body, and in some instances, the hypodermis cracks from sudden weight gain causing line marks on the abdomen, groin, underarm, and back. Persons with hypothyroidism experience a drop in their metabolism, and weight gain occurs as a result of low calorie consumption. Type-1 obesity can be treated with general obesity treatment methods like simultaneous dietetic treatment and exercise. But type-2 obesity requires that the underlying disease be treated first. Usually, obesity goes away naturally after the underlying disease has been treated.

Child-type and Adult-type Obesity
Although obesity may look the same from the outside, a full examination reveals that there's a considerable amount of personal difference in the number and size of fat cells. According to the size and number of fat cells, obesity can be divided into adult-type, where only the size of fat cells is increased, and child-type, where the number of fat cells is increased.

The number of fat cells increases the most during the year after birth. People who have always been obese since childhood, have 3-4 times more fat cells than people who became obese as adults. With adult-type obesity, the number of fat cells is close to normal, but the size increases. This happens mostly after middle age. But generally, the reason child-type obesity is more dangerous and important than adult-type obesity is because it is extremely difficult to reduce the number of fat cells already made. Therefore, treatment is much more effective for adult-type obesity, where the enlarged fat cells just have to be returned to their original state, than for child-type obesity.

Abdominal Obesity and Limb Obesity
Depending on where fat is stored on the body, obesity can be divided in to abdominal obesity and limb obesity. Abdominal obesity is when fat is mostly distributed over the abdomen and back, and limb obesity is when fat is concentrated around the thighs, arms, legs, and buttocks. Abdominal obesity occurs mainly in men; limb obesity occurs primarily in women.

The reason the distribution of fat is significant is because depending on where it's concentrated the danger level for adult diseases changes. So with abdominal obesity there's a higher danger of ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. This is because low protein steatolytic enzymes, which breakdown nutrients into triglycerides and store them in fat cells, are very active within abdominal fat.

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The Definition of Obesity

Definition of Obesity
# A person is considered obese when the percentage of body fat, according to age and sex, exceeds 5% of the average percentage for that age and sex classification.

# Young women are considered obese when body fat is 25% or greater; middle-aged women are considered obese when body fat is 30% or greater.

# Young men are considered obese when body fat is 20% or greater; middle-aged men are obese when body fat is 30% or greater.

# Age-Based Definition of Obesity
# In developed countries, obesity occurs frequently among the lower classes, whereas in underdeveloped countries, obesity occurs more frequently among the upper classes.

# The lowest body fat percentage is genetically set, but the maximum percentage is heavily affected by the person's environmental factors.

# Dissatisfaction and stress can cause obesity.

Note: the following formulas are given according to the metric system, and require translation to inches and pounds.

# Overweight: The condition in which body weight is excessively greater than the standard body weight.

# Determining standard or ideal body weight: subtract 100 from a person's height to estimate a person's standard body weight; this does not apply to children. People taller than 160 cm, should subtract 110 to estimate their standard body weight.

# Another method is subtracting 100 and multiplying this number by 0.9 (height-100) * 0.9=standard body weight. People less than 155 cm, should subtract 100 from their height to determine their standard body weight.

# Overweight= height - 110 + 10%.

Basal Metabolic Rate
# BMR is the energy used to maintain essential biological functions like circulation, breathing, digestion, maintaining body temperature, and neural and cellular activity.

# The basal metabolic rate differs depending on sex, age, race, endocrine system, and body surface area, but normal adults consume 1200-1800 kcal daily, 60-70% of total energy consumption.

# The BMR is higher in persons with greater body surface area, for example, a tall, skinny person versus a short, fat person of the same body weight.

# Men have higher BMRs because they have more muscle tissue.

# If a fever is present, the amount of energy needed by cells increases.

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Side Effects of Obesity

Obesity is a disease, but it also poses a threat as a common risk factor for various adult diseases. Compared to non-obese people, obese people have a 4-fold higher incidence rate of high blood pressure, 8-fold for diabetes, 10-fold for hyperlipidemia, and 2.5-fold for fatty liver. When the body adds excess fat, physical changes and vascular system abnormalities occur, such as an increase of fat in blood. Increased body weight puts strain on the body's joints, especially the knees, so there is a high chance of degenerative arthritis. Cholelithiasis, amenorrhea, and infertility are also associated with obesity.

Obesity-associated Disease
1. Diabetes
2. Hyperlipidemia
3. Blood circulation diseases like arteriosclerosis, high blood pressure, heart disease, and palsy
4. Skin disease
5. Joint problems, back, knee, and ankle pain
6. Liver disease
7. Cholelithiasis
8. Menstrual abnormalities
9. Female infertility
10. Breast cancer - autodiagnosis
11. Endometrium cancer
12. Decline in libido
13. Mental stress

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Exercise Prescription for Obesity

The Intensity of the Exercise Changes with Body weight
People with a normal obesity level over 120% (20% more than standard body weight) should avoid intense and strenuous exercise and start with light exercises. That's because the amount of calories consumed varies depending on body weight. A heavy person needs a lot of energy to move his/her heavy body, and has the makings to become tired easily during intense exercise.

Exercise Suggestions for an Effective Diet
# "I ate little for a long time, but I'm not losing any more weight. So, I gave up and started eating again and now I've gained it back."

# "Starving and eating less, I dieted really hard, but my flab is just the way it was before."

These are the most common complaints heard in counseling. Why? Because of the lack of proper exercise. Many people, when they diet, only control their meals by eating less or going on a low-calorie diet. It's hard to successfully diet without exercising. Our bodies adjust to low-calorie diets by lowering basal metabolism. Eventually, our bodies get used to smaller amounts of food, and calories are left over, which is why people can't lose additional weight. The yo-yo effect occurs because people resume normal eating after dieting and basal metabolism remains low, producing excess calories.

An Outline for the Most Basic Exercises
Exercising can be divided into exercise that improves heart and lung function, and weight training, which improves physical strength.

# Aerobic exercise for heart and lung function improvement

Aerobic exercise is appropriate for controlling body weight because plenty of oxygen is provided and the entire body consumes energy. It is recommended that a person start with aerobic exercises once that person is considered obese or overweight. This is because the appropriate exercise can effectively break down body fat. Dieting by eating less may actually break down body protein instead of body fat.

Walking fast, jogging, indoor bicycle riding, walking up stairs, swimming, water aerobics, hiking, and aerobic dancing are some examples of this type of exercise. Normally, when treating obesity, a low-intensity 30- to 50-minute workout, without rest, is more effective than doing high-intensity exercises. Choosing an appropriate intensity level is important.

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Diseases Associated with Obesity

# Obese people have 4 times the risk of getting diabetes than people of normal weight.

# Diabetes is a metabolic disease caused by the lack of insulin.

# The lack of insulin causes sugar to be excreted instead of being turned into calories.

# Insulin transports glucose to the tissue and accelerates the metabolizing of carbohydrates. It also stores glucose as glycogen and plays an important role in fat and protein synthesis.

# In order to gain energy, glucose in the food we eat must be absorbed into the body, enter the blood vessels, and be carried to tissue that needs it. With diabetes, the absorbed glucose stays in the blood vessels and eventually is excreted.

# High Blood Pressure
# Obese people have a higher chance of having high blood pressure than persons of normal weight.

# High blood pressure is defined as blood pressure that is at a continuously higher level than normal blood pressure level.

# Blood is pumped into the main artery by the heart, and then through the arteries spreads throughout the body. The pressure in the arteries is blood pressure.

# Systolic blood pressure is when pressure from the heart is at its greatest. When pressure is at its lowest is diastolic blood pressure.

# This is how the World Health Organization defines blood pressure.

Normal blood pressure: systolic BP- below 140mmHg, diastolic BP- below 90mmHg

High blood pressure warning: systolic BP- below 160mmHg, diastolic BP- below 94mmHg

High blood pressure: systolic BP- above 160mmHg, diastolic BP- above 95mmHg

# To maintain unneeded fat in the body the demand for oxygen goes up. But in order to increase the supply of oxygen the amount of blood circulating must be increased, and to do this the heart must work (beat) more. This is how obesity causes high blood pressure.

# There are more cases of high blood pressure accompanying overweight people than normal weight people but not everyone overweight has high blood pressure.

# It's (artery) the blood vessel that carries blood pushed out from the heart by its beating throughout the body.

# Arteriosclerosis is the condition in which the artery walls become thick and narrow.

# Artery walls grow thicker, narrower, and less elastic depending on obesity and age. These symptoms begin in people's 20s, and symptoms gradually increase as they enter their 40s.

# Eating a lot of fatty foods, genetics, hyperlipemia, high blood pressure, obesity, and diabetes are some of the causes of arteriosclerosis

# Arteriosclerosis can cause cerebrovascular and coronary disorders.

# Hyperlipemia is when there's an unusually high amount of fat in the blood.

# Hyperlipemia occurs when fat, like triglyceride and cholesterol, isn't metabolized properly.

# Because there's a lot of cholesterol, hyperlipemia is also known as hypercholesteremia.

# Genetics, obesity, diabetes, stress, thyroid gland dysfunction, liver dysfunction, and pituitary dysfunction are causes of hyperlipemia.

# Obesity has a close relation with fatty tissue. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglycedemia are more common in people who have an obese upper body than people with obese lower bodies.

# There is good cholesterol (HDL) and bad cholesterol (LDL). Bad cholesterol (LDL) has a close connection with body weight.

# Hyperlipemia occurs easily in people who are obese because they have trouble metabolizing lipids.

Disease Associated With Obesity

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Dieting Side Effects

To follow, a discussion of some of the common pitfalls and side effects of dieting.

Sudden dizziness, and ear noises (ringing in the ear) are some of the most common diet side effects caused by a temporary nutritional unbalance from excessive dieting. Recovery is easy if healthy eating habits are resumed, but a continued poor diet can have a fatal effect on health.

Yo-yo Effect
Even after dieting successfully with a firm resolution, it is by no means easy to constantly keep it up. Compared to fit people, obese people have larger and more fat cells. When such a person diets, the already larger fat cells do not decrease in number but only grow smaller. So the body returns to its original state when food intake increases after a diet. This phenomenon is known as the yo-yo effect, and rather than being pleased with a diet, it is important to have a long-term plan to keep off lost weight.

Gastroenteric Disorder
The stomach secretes acid and prepares to accept food at fixed times. But irregular meal times and skipping meals confuses the body, weakening digestibility and causing frequent burning sensations. If symptoms continue, it can lead to a stomach ulcer or inflammation of the stomach.

Helplessness, Depression
It's natural not to want to do anything besides what's necessary when living on less energy. As this cycle repeats, the body droops and sags and a melancholy mood sets in, which can lead to increasing irritation and annoyance.

When food intake decreases, there is a natural decrease in the amount of consumed and left over waste. Consequently, the digestive organs do not feel the need to be active, and even if they try to be active, there isn't enough strength. This decline in the intestinal function causes constipation. Fiber and laxatives can help, but only in a supplementary way and not as a final solution. This is why it is important to eat adequately while dieting.

A lack of nutrition weakens the functions that maintain balance in the body, such as bodily fluids, causing the body to swell more easily, which is responsible for occasional complaints about "faces get bigger" despite eating less. Control the amount of carbohydrates, protein, and fat, but to lessen this swelling effect, don't reduce vitamin and mineral intake.

The time for sufficient growth is limited to puberty. If there are elements interfering with growth, growth may be stunted. Severe obesity hinders growth, but excessive dieting causes even more side effects. Therefore, an obese child should never try to lose weight alone or with only his/her parents' guidance, but, instead, a medical specialist should be consulted.

Skin Abnormalities
Unreasonable dieting will upset the body's nutritional balance and cause deficiencies of iron and other minerals. If the unbalance is severe, excessive amounts of fat are lost and the skin will atrophy and become rough. Usually, rough skin is caused by the loss of water rather than fat. Drinking plenty of water while dieting should prevent such a phenomenon. If it doesn't solve the problem, a moderate amount of fat intake is necessary. In order to prevent skin from becoming rough, eat plenty of fruits and vegetables without disturbing the balance among various microelements, such as vitamins and iron.

Menstrual Irregularities
If a state of nutritional unbalance continues, and body fat percentage is too low, women experience menstrual irregularities. In extreme cases, infertility becomes a possibility. If periods become longer while dieting, there's a need to watch with interest. Menstrual irregularities caused simply by malnutrition, can be treated easily by increasing nutritional intake, but if that's not the case, treatment may not be so easy.

Many middle-aged women have been warned about the dangers of osteoporosis, but osteoporosis is now a danger to all age groups. One of the main reasons for this is dieting. Anyone who diets should be aware of osteoporosis. Besides making the bones weak, it makes holes inside the bone and causes bones to fracture easily. Because osteoporosis is a disease that limits movement; it is extremely uncomfortable and inconvenient to manage everyday life once it's been contracted. As bone density weakens, body weight decreases, but this weight loss is not related to loss of body fat. It is hard to recover the lost bone density just by taking calcium. Proper exercise and a balanced diet are absolutely needed.

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Dietetic Treatment

Low-calorie Diet
A low-calorie diet is a diet that maintains calorie intake between 1200-1500 kcal for men and 1000-1200 kcal for women. Considering that women normally consume about 1800-2200 kcal of food daily and men consume 2000-2500 kcal daily, that's an average decrease in calorie intake of 600-1000 kcal. This amount is equivalent to at least one meal, and it is a method that is used widely by many people. Skipping a meal, setting a desired calorie intake and eating accordingly, and halving meal portions are ways of adhering to low-calorie diets.

However, continuing this type of diet, as with very low-calorie diets, can lead to side effects such as lack of energy, dizziness, hunger, and malnutrition. There's a high chance of regaining weight from the yo-yo effect with this method also.

The best way to diet is to decrease average consumption by 500 kcal. However, a balanced diet must be maintained. Ways to accomplish this are to avoid overeating during the weekends, avoid drinking too many alcoholic or sweetened beverages, or by cutting down on snacks. Substituting high-calorie foods with low-calorie foods should be effective in realizing good results. By reducing calorie intake by 500 kcal a day, monthly calorie intake is reduced by 15,000 kcal, resulting in a loss of about 2 kg a month. Experts recommend that, of the 500 kcal, 250 kcal should be taken out of meals, and the other 250 kcal be burned through exercise.

What is a Very Low-calorie Diet (VLCD)?
VLCD is a dieting method that reduces body weight by consuming 400-800 kcal a day, allowing a loss of 1-1.5 kg every week. Although it is advised that a person eat no less than 1200 kcal a day, the following are instances when it is advisable and not advisable to follow a VLCD.

VLCD is recommended for:
# People 30% overweight from the standard weight, or people with a body mass index greater than 30.

# People who have attempted a low-calorie diet but failed.

# People willing to visit the hospital every week or month to receive treatment for a year.

# Those who would sincerely like to change their lifestyle.

Not recommended for:
# Pregnant and nursing women.

# People older than age 65 or younger than age 18.

# Those with a prior diagnosis of gout, acute myocardial infarction, heart disorder, psychological problems, drug addiction/use, diabetes, electrolyte disorder, or angina.

Important Points for VLCD:
A proper VLCD minimizes nitrogen imbalance, decreases fat, and motivates the patient to continue dieting. Generally, formulas that substitute meals are used in VLCD. The formulas used in obesity clinics are usually those approved by the FDA, and of them, 3 are widely accepted by most governments as safe. The formulas are mostly protein-based, or a combination of protein and carbohydrates. Depending on the patient, these formulas take the place of 1, 2, or all 3 meals.

However, this method is only used to lose a large amount of weight in a short time, and tends to lose its effect on weight loss if continued for a prolonged period of time. Almost always, weight is regained after a VLCD, so it is important to learn and be prepared for a change in behavioral, lifestyle, and eating habits. A VLCD lasts for about 12-16 weeks (3-4 months). Heavier people have more body fat, and can carry out a VLCD for a longer period. Eating normal food after a VLCD should be done gradually over a 3- to 6-week period.

For example, when using the VLCD method to lose a target weight of 23 kg, men lose about 2 kg/week, and women lose about 1.5 kg/week. Generally, the recommended speed of weight loss during a VLCD should not exceed 1-2 kg/week. Faster weight loss can cause extensive damage to fat cells and protein throughout the body. Patients advised to lose more than 2 kg a week, require careful supervision to ensure a balanced and safe VLCD and that activities are not too strenuous. If necessary, a day's calorie intake is added to slow down the speed at which body weight is decreasing.

About 50% of VLCD participants drop out before the program ends, and about 30% of participants who complete the program maintain their weight for at least 18 months. Many regain their weight after completing the program because they do not establish appropriate lifestyle and eating habits. Because a VLCD can cause serious complications and side effects, it must be done under medical supervision, along with a balanced diet, exercise, a healthy lifestyle, and a program that can keep lost weight off.

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Controlling Bodyweight

When we think of controlling one's bodyweight, we tend to think of it as a method solely for losing weight. However, someone who is normally thin can control bodyweight in order to gain weight. These days, society has increased awareness of physical beauty and appearance, causing many to engage in weight controlling activities. College women, young women, and teen girls alike are attempting more and more to lose weight. Consequently, many diet methods are being spread via the Internet, TV, magazines, and even by word of mouth. These methods, introduced through such media, have yet to hold any validity in the medical societies, yet many dieters still avidly attempt such techniques.

The Healthiest Way to Control Weight
The healthiest way to control one's weight is to maintain a healthy and balanced diet and practice regular exercise; this is achieved by careful consideration of the individual's weight, metabolism, and regular physical activities. A healthy dieting technique can be achieved after careful consideration of the elements of nutrition, exercise, and daily activities, ultimately yielding positive results of dieting. Dieting not only requires physical health, but also requires low stress levels and good mental health. A successful diet is thought of as lowering the body fat content, while minimizing body protein damage of the muscles. So it's very wise to create and maintain a healthy balanced diet, as well as participate in regular exercise activities.

It's not rare to find individuals using unhealthy dieting methods to lose weight. These methods include fasting, a sudden drop in food consumption, and following methods that do not have any medical validity or scientific proof. Also prolonging a dieting technique will not yield a greater loss in weight, and will actually produce the opposite effect of gaining more weight. By decreasing food consumption, our bodies find a way to adapt to the change, altering our metabolic rates. And after the body has adapted to burning energy efficiently, an increase in food intake will cause the body to begin storing the excess food as fat. This is how the body will gain more weight after a diet.

We've all seen people who have actually gained more weight (above their original weight) due to this form of diet failure. When dieting, it is common to see a fluctuation in weight rather than a straight loss of weight. This is called the yo-yo effect of dieting, named after the children's toy. To prevent the yo-yo effect, a steady and subtle change in diet and exercise is needed, rather than abruptly decreasing the quantity of food intake. When losing weight, it is wiser to lose about half a kilogram each week. To accomplish this, an average of 500 kcal of food consumption should be decreased daily. Initially, it may seem almost impossible to cut such an amount of food every day, so the most important factor is to be well motivated and dedicated to the diet.

Anorexia, Bulimia & Compulsive Overeating

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Cigarettes and Dieting

Cigarettes contain nicotine and tar, and nicotine from cigarettes stimulates ganglion receptors, making nerve transmission matter move well. Nicotine is also known to suppress appetite and cause thermogenic action in people and animals. Often, people who quit smoking gain weight. Because of this thermogenic action, people who smoke a pack (20 cigarettes) a day, consume 200 calories. Therefore, people who quit can gain 5.5-10 lbs. According to one report, energy intake increased 69% after quitting cigarettes, thereby proving, to a certain extent, the effect of smoking on body weight, appetite, and calorie consumption.

Dr. Roibin, in his thesis published in JAMA, points out that smoking to lose weight is a poor decision. Smoking increases calorie consumption, but it affects the distribution of fat in the body, and can cause metabolic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes. Additionally, 1022 American men between the ages of 19 and 102 were subjects of a 26-year study, spanning from 1960 to 1986. Height, weight, waist size, hip size, and smoking habits were recorded and analyzed. According to the results, weight decreases while smoking and increases after quitting, but the waist to hip ratio for smokers, compared to non-smokers, is higher. To sum it up, fat distribution becomes larger in the upper body and can cause metabolic diseases.

A similar conclusion was made by a Dr. George, who did the topic address at the annual World Obesity Organization. He mentioned that smoking can be considered a cause of obesity, and that it makes the hip and waist larger, causing apple-shaped bodies. A different reason for that may be because as lung function is reduced, the volume of the lungs themselves increase and fat distribution changes. Also, the effects on dieting, or weight reduction, have been medically proven. People who are thinking about quitting should consider the possibility of gaining weight after quitting.

Weight change from smoking is 1-6.5 lbs., if smoking about a pack a day. Consequently, that much weight may be gained after quitting smoking. Therefore, women who quit smoking must reduce their caloric intake or increase their energy consumption to compensate: For instance, eating 2/3 of a bowl of rice less everyday, or walking 40 minutes or more daily. Actually, cigarettes have no desirable effect besides promoting movement in the duodenum muscles after a meal. Smoking is not recommended to women as a means of weight control. If smoking is not a habit, steps to increase energy consumption must be taken. Do any exercise for at least 20 minutes a day. When quitting smoking, make it a habit to shower and meditate whenever urges to smoke arise. This helps relieve stress. It's not easy, but smoking is a habit, and quitting is also a fight with oneself. Women who are trying to lose weight by eating less must especially keep in mind that smoking is a direct cause of osteoporosis.

coffee and cigs diet

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Causes of Obesity

Genetic Factors
# There's a close connection between the obesity in parents and the obesity in their children. Oftentimes, the children born to obese parents also become obese.

# Seventy percent of children with obese parents are also obese. When only one of the parents is obese, 40% of the children are obese, and when neither of the parents is obese, only 10% are obese.

# Genetically, obese people store more energy as fat than do normal people.

# Obese people, genetically, have a lower basal metabolism.

# Social, Environmental, and Psychological Factors
# In developed countries, obesity occurs frequently among the lower classes, whereas in underdeveloped countries, obesity occurs more frequently among the upper classes.

# The lowest body fat percentage is genetically set, but the maximum percentage is heavily affected by the person's environmental factors.

# Dissatisfaction and stress can cause obesity.

Endocrine and Hypothalamus Problem
# Obesity can be caused by endocrine disorders, hypothalamus dysfunction, hypophysis tumors, and pineal gland tumors.

# Most of the time, the reason for obesity is overeating.
# High calorie intake and low energy consumption result in obesity.
# Excessive eating as a result of stress increases the amount of fat and causes obesity.
# Eating too much after not eating for a while, and other irregular eating habits, can cause obesity.

# Among people who consume excess alcohol, there are many obese people.
# Excess calories from alcohol cause obesity.

Lack of Exercise
# As life becomes more convenient and mechanical, most people don't like to walk or use stairs and opt for cars and elevators, further compounding a chronic lack of exercise that many people experience.
# The body stores more energy when energy is not exerted. The lack of exercise causes the body to naturally deposit fat throughout the body.
# Compared to people who do manual labor, people with office jobs have a greater chance of becoming obese, despite more working hours, because less energy is exerted.

Dr Rutledge talks about the causes of Obesity in Clinic


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